“留得”和“拾得”

陈 薇 Chen Wei   2018-07-20 10:03:02

"Retention" and "Pick up"—Ancient Chinese Wisdoms Embedded in the Two West Lakes

摘 要:杭州西湖和扬州瘦西湖是2个秀美的江南古典园林,均负郭而西,但它们形成的过程和呈现的形态及景色并非一致,其中包含的古典智慧概括为:“留得”和“拾得”。从“城-景”“地-景”“人-景”3个方面,探讨和分析了2个江南古典园林取得成就的思路、动因及操作方式,以启迪当代实践中对中国古典智慧的价值传承。

关 键 词:风景园林;杭州西湖;扬州瘦西湖;留得;拾得

文章编号:1000-6664(2018)06-0005-09

中图分类号:TU 986

文献标志码:A

收稿日期:2018-04-24

修回日期:2018-05-20

基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“江南古典园林与城市水系的关联研究”(编号51478101)资助

Abstract: The Hangzhou West Lake and the Yangzhou Slender West Lake are two beautiful classical Chinese gardens in Jiangnan (the southern Yangtze River delta area). Though both are named for their physical presence on the western outskirts, the individual lake tells a different story about its formation and landscape. The author discusses the ancient Chinese wisdoms embedded in the two west lakes in the context of "retention" and "pick up". The paper analyzes the ideas, motivations and operations that made the two lakes famed and accomplished from the perspectives of urbanism, land and people, in an attempt to provide an insight into the inheritance of ancient Chinese wisdoms in contemporary practices.

Key words: landscape architecture; Hangzhou West Lake; Yangzhou Slender West Lake; retention; pick up

我开展中国古典建筑、城市、园林景观的关联性研究已经20余年,而其中主持的3项国家自然科学基金项目均和水环境相关。20世纪90年代在文章“为什么要研究长江中下游沿江景观”[1]中,第一次提出对于中国古典园林景观研究的角度宜从“城-景、地-景、人-景”的相互关照和联系进行,并依此完成了沿江景观的研究;后来我和我指导的研究生们合作完成的《走在运河线上——大运河沿线历史城市与建筑研究》(上、下卷) [2],依然延续关联性思想;近年我主要聚焦在“江南古典园林与城市水系的关联研究”,从特殊区域的角度更深入地发掘古人在古典园林方面的创造性智慧。

另一方面,在研究的同时,我一直从事遗产保护方面的实践工作,譬如2002年进行的“扬州子城保护与发展规划”及2007—2009年主持的“全国重点文物保护单位扬州城址(隋—宋)保护规划”①、2005年开始以及2011—2012年拓展的“全国重点文物保护单位临安城遗址(南宋)总体保护规划”②,都接触到对于江南城市与园林的价值判断问题,尤其通过古典文献阅读和现场考察,使我洞悉并进一步确定古人是没有我们今天建筑、城市、园林景观的学科分野的,在整体性的思考和实践方面,取得很高的成就。2009年11月在南京林业大学举行的陈植造园思想国际研讨会上,我报告了研究成果“城河湖水一带 绿杨城郭一体——扬州瘦西湖研究二则”[3],第一次提出瘦西湖的形态形成与城市护城河兴废的关系,现在这个结论被普遍认可。

本篇系应《中国园林》邀请为“城乡水环境”主题之作,既是我近期进一步深入研究的成果,也是对于20余年前提出关联性研究构想的延续,2个西湖是指曾经均负郭而西的杭州西湖和扬州瘦西湖,还是京杭运河线上2个很有典型意义的园林,因此,对于2个西湖蕴含的中国古典智慧的揭示,也可以理解为我主持的3个研究课题的一种贯穿。

此外,2个西湖,古今时有人进行对比或联系,如《扬州画舫录》载汪坤《题画舫录》:“绿杨城郭比西湖,自古繁华入画图,六柱船分三尺水,纵然风雨不曾无。③[4]”这种比较,多从审美角度考察,影响了后人对2个西湖的认知,淡化或者漠视了真实的西湖和瘦西湖能够存留下来的真谛和规律。本文希望做些补充、修正、发现和揭示的工作,对它们形成的过程和呈现的形态及景色,我概括为:“留得”和“拾得”。将从“城-景”“地-景”“人-景”3个方面进行探索和分析。

图1 西湖与杭州历史城市[1-1引自《西湖游览志》西湖游览志图;

1-2引自《全国重点文物保护单位临安城遗址(南宋)总体保护规划》说明文本] Fig. 1 West Lake & Hangzhou historical city1 “留得”vs“拾得”之一:城市发展的角度

1.1 牙城旧址扩篱藩,留得西湖翠浪翻

西湖现在无疑成为杭州最重要的城市组成,而自隋代到清代西湖始终偏居城市西侧,是名副其实的西湖(图1)。民国初年因建设之需,政府有计划地拆除城墙,纳西湖与城市一体:先拆西墙开路、后拆北和南墙开辟新市场;1959年建环城东路,东侧最后一段城墙被拆除,如此改变了原有的城市山水格局,城与湖的界限、城与钱塘江的界面被破除。最重要的是原来于东钱塘江与西湖之间长时间呈南北向发展的城市及其内在动力都在改变,西湖成为杭州最大的消费平台之源泉。而在历史上,西湖始终是城市的内存和主动创造。

西湖筑得:西湖位于钱塘江之西北隋杭州西侧。秦时现在的杭州尚为江海潮出没的地区,只在灵隐山麓设县治,称钱塘属会稽郡;东汉隶吴郡,兴修水利发展农田,修筑一条海塘与海隔断而成内湖,形成“明圣湖”又曰“金牛湖”④;隋开皇九年(589年)废郡,倚江带湖筑城,南设州治于凤凰山,北以平陆为城市,呈南北长、东西狭的带状,遂“明圣湖”或“金牛湖”成为西湖。

西湖留得:唐代城址仍因其旧,对于西湖,白居易修堤蓄水,以利灌溉,舒缓旱灾危害。后梁开平元年(907年)钱鏐封为吴越王,以杭州为都,先后进行3次扩建,但均延续隋杭州城“南宫北市”的基本格局,确立了以北部作为城市发展方向而未填湖建房。钱鏐还设置了7 000名“撩浅军”,专事西湖的疏浚工作,以保持湖水清澈。后来有书生歌颂钱镠的大格局思想:“牙城旧址扩篱藩,留得西湖翠浪翻;有国百年心愿足,祚无千载是名言”⑤。

西湖两得:宋太宗太平兴国三年( 978年)“钱俶始事贡献”⑥[5],吴越献两浙诸州地,国除。北宋仍为杭州州治。建炎三年(1129年)宋高宗诏升杭州为临安府曰行在所,以州衙为行宫。绍兴八年(1138年)正式以杭州为都城,称临安,绍兴二十八年(1158年)增筑皇城东南外城,但没有动用西湖用地。整个宋代,西湖的最大发展为继前朝修堤坝,并将水利工程和景观相结合,是非常独特的创造。“谁立西湖造化功?峰分南北境相通。四时风物弦歌里,两岸人家图画中。堤柳送迎忘尔汝,棹声来往自西东。风波便作恩波看,此乐君王与众通”⑦。元明清时期,或平城或筑城,但西湖始终保持相对独立的负城角色,直到民国以后改变。

1.2 二十四桥空寂寂,绿杨摧折旧官河

扬州最辉煌的时候是唐代,其时除了长安和洛阳两京,扬州是第一大都会,有“扬一益二”⑧之称。之所以有如此都会,源于所在的特殊位置,是古代水路交通要道,东通黄海,北连运河,南接长江,东北为蜀冈高地可防守。扬州城自春秋末年在蜀冈建城到向南发展成大都会,从缩减规模于宋代形成三城格局以防守,至明清继续放弃北部而仅将宋大城的东南部作为城圈生活,很重要的原因是水道的改变(图2)。

新水道胜出,旧水道便废用,而扬州瘦西湖乃在擅用旧水道的“拾得”过程中发展起来。

架桥官河:扬州城始建于春秋末年,吴王夫差开凿邗沟以通长江和淮河的同时,在蜀冈修筑邗城,即扬州城的前身。邗沟为扬州运河的起源,南方物资经此运往北方或者东南货物由此运往两京。汉代以降,长江南退,连接长江的河道多有疏通和修筑,楚怀王、汉吴王刘濞先后筑广陵城,隋时建江都宫城、东城,并进一步开凿贯通了运河。由于交通繁忙、人口增多,蜀冈至长江之间的河滩地聚落形成,此便是蜀冈上继续的子城与蜀冈下发展的罗城,在隋唐完成。这样,原来运输的邗沟和官河保障河,便成为唐罗城的内河,为方便官河东西两侧的交流,建桥二十四沟通⑨,但毕竟穿城运输不便,且“城内漕河又苦水浅,不得不思变”⑩,实际上唐罗城东侧的城河发挥了主要运河的作用而替代了官河,以至于唐末韦庄《过扬州》有“二十四桥空寂寂,绿杨摧折旧官河” 的诗句。

利用城河:在唐大扬州的基础上,后来的扬州城就是不断缩小规模、利用前朝城的压缩过程。后周时期利用罗城东南角筑周小城;北宋沿用周小城;南宋为适应抗金需要,建置坚固的军事防御城市,由宝祐城、夹城、大城三城组成。如此范围,便是不断利用旧城的过程,尤其可以发现,宋大城和夹城的西城壕就是原来唐代罗城内的官河保障河,宋大城的东南更是原封不动地沿用唐罗城的东南部,只是北缘进行了加筑。

连接城河:元代沿用宋大城,北部逐渐荒废。明、清扬州城继续紧缩,集中在宋大城的东南部发展,而宋大城的城壕北部包括夹城一带成为废墟,水系弃用,好在嘉靖十八年(1539年)疏浚[6],变成水面略宽的保障湖,即明代扬州的西湖;万历间“砲山河小志,一名保障河,一名保障湖,在平山堂下岁久淤浅” ;清代“国朝雍正十年(1732年)郡守尹会一募捐重浚,扬州西山诸水萃于四塘” ,其实就是将平山堂下唐罗城西护城河北段和唐代官河保障河(湖)被宋代护城河使用的北段进行了东西向的联系,此乃构成扬州西湖之所以“瘦”的缘由。“瘦西湖”之名最早见于文献记载为清初吴绮《扬州鼓吹词序》:“城北一水通平山堂,名瘦西湖,本名保障湖。” 扬州瘦西湖的基本形态便是顺应城河并对废弃的城河进行整治连通的一种方式,没有事先的谋划和规划,却对现实有慧眼识珠的敏锐和审时度势的操作。这种思维和能力在扬州瘦西湖的后续建设也有相应的表达。

两湖的“城-景”,为古人依据城市发展的进程,或策划大局或顺势而为,是对于城市依存或遗存的水体加以保护和利用的过程。

图2 瘦西湖与扬州历史城市(2-1:瘦西湖为联通唐罗城西北段护城河与宋大城西北段护城河形成;2-2:唐代大扬州与后来扬州历史城市变化,陈薇绘) Fig. 2 Slender West Lake and Yangzhou historical city (2-1: Slender West Lake is built on the northwestern moat section in the Luo City (Tang) and the northwestern moat section of the Large City (Song); 2-2: The historical changes of the Great Yangzhou during the Tang Dynasty and later Yangzhou) 2“留得”vs“拾得”之二:水利开发的角度

2.1 “汇水”与长堤

杭州有两湖:上湖和下湖。上湖即西湖,“西湖周绕三十里,三面环山,溪谷缕注,下有渊泉百道,潴而为湖”[7];下湖“在钱塘门外,其源出于上湖”[5],是一片泛水地。此为杭州南高北低地势所致。

上湖西湖水体特点是:水源丰润,同时连江带湖,为活水,水质好。第一个认识到西湖作用的是吴越王,当时“湖葑蔓合,乃置撩兵千人以芟草,浚泉水” [7]。

第二位是唐代李泌刺史,考虑“市民苦江水之卤恶也,开六井、凿阴窦,引湖水以灌之,民赖其利”。后来“重修六井,甃函笕,以蓄泄湖水,溉沿河之田”[7]。西湖水可以直接内通城市沟渠和井水,为民所用;向北流入下湖以灌溉农田。

第三位和西湖有关的重要人物为唐代杭州刺史白居易,“白居易《开湖记》云,蓄泄及时可溉田千顷,今纵不及此数而下湖数十里茭菱禾麦仰赖不赀,此西湖不可废者三也”[7],为了保证西湖水不竭,遂通过水利工程筑堤防蓄泄,白居易在穆宗时“乃取葑泥积湖中南北径十余里,为长堤”[7],地面铺白沙,人称“白堤”,堤上有断桥,又称为“断桥堤”,这样控制上下湖的东西向长堤由此而生,位于西湖北部。白居易不仅是一位懂工程的官员,“始筑堤捍钱塘湖,钟泄其水,溉田千顷,复浚李泌六井,民赖其汲”[5],也是一位极具审美能力的诗人,“孤山寺北贾亭西,水面初平云脚低,几处早莺争暖树,谁家新燕啄春泥。乱花渐欲迷人眼,浅草才能没马蹄,最爱湖东行不足,绿杨阴里白沙堤。[5]”将孤山与湖水、嫩树与泥土、飞花与浅草、绿杨与沙堤,进行了高低、冷暖、动静、色彩、横竖等对比,呈现一幅多姿的美景。到后来南宋淳祐丁未时,上湖枯竭,便通过筑坝截水,将包括下湖在内的诸多水源“每坝用车运水而上,从尉司畔,流入上湖。[5]”可见西湖的重要作用是汇水,相应的主要水利工程一为捍江,一为维持湖水丰沛。

第四位是宋人苏轼,不仅“开西湖,疏茆山盐桥河,修治堰闸,浚城中六井”[5],而且将“苏公堤”横截湖中,这就是南北向的长堤。“元祐中,苏公轼既开湖内,积葑草为堤,相去数里,横跨南北两山,夹植花柳,诗云:‘六桥横绝天汉上,北山始于南屏通。忽惊二十五万丈,老葑席卷苍云空’”[5],中为六桥,桥上有亭,将用作水利的南北堤坝和造景结合一体。

唐宋两道长堤也构成西湖的最大特色,并形成西湖的主要分区要素,他们和孤山等山体构成的西湖地景特色,由此而生(图3)。重要的是,西湖作为杭州所在最大的水体,汇山泉、接运河、通江水、连井水,为城市生态活水,既保障了市民日常食用、养殖、灌溉,也因水利所需筑堤坝、修桥洞、治堰闸等,将湖水高程控制工程“留得”为地景分区,聪慧无比。所谓“开浚西湖,以壮风水,以便民利”[5]。

2.2 “泄水”与长沟

扬州位于蜀冈高地,“运河高江淮数丈” ,往北在唐代便注重置堰、治陂塘;往南水系较多,位于西侧的水系主要为补水和泄水,发展至明清瘦西湖一带便是位于蜀冈和运河及长江之间的一条折弯的泄水长沟,“蜀冈诸山之水,细流萦折,潜出曲港,宣泄归河” [4]。

“柂以漕渠,轴以昆冈。” 是说蜀冈和水系密切相关,汉晋时蜀冈隔长江与金陵相对,隋唐以后长江南退,蜀冈东与邗沟古运河一脉相连,绕隋唐扬州罗城东南入江,蜀冈西其南一线河路,通保障湖。其时,长江运输物资到邗沟主要是走城内官河和东城河,这西一路主要为补给和泄水。

后来形成瘦西湖伊始,也主要是城市的水利工程湖,由于它位于蜀冈与运河及长江之间,旱时通过它,从蜀冈西侧的雷塘 得到补给并传输给运河,涝时通过它将山洪进行排泄,清《扬州营志》便有这样的图示和说明 [8]。在防汛和守卫层面,这一带倍加重视,“西南汛,迢递崇山,远通陕豫;便北汛,域限芜城,虽属弹丸之汛,脉绵蜀阜,洵增营,镇之雄” [8]。均说明瘦西湖是重要的城市功能湖。

瘦西湖南部,“又分为二:即扬州城西北濠,其一东流经芍园,……绕镇淮门迤逦,以达于运河;其一南流绕倚虹园,东历通泗门,至古渡桥稍折而西,又南与砚池合池,之北为九峰园,园之景曰砚池染翰河,由砚池再折而东至响水桥,以达运河” [9]。有了瘦西湖,扬州明清城的水系便与外部的江河塘水连通起来。陈章《重浚保障湖》说明瘦西湖贯通之要害:“举臿如云集水工,五塘分溜百泉通,莫言开浚无多地,也有星辰应鼈东” [9]。

只是到康乾南巡,才逐步造景,尤其是乾隆年间,将工程建设和造园融为一体,“叠经挑浚加深广,曲折点缀园亭,栽植桃柳” ,形成长沟婉转、水流直下、秀美旖旎的胜景和美景(图4)。

两湖的“地-景”,乃古人根据湖的规模、水体形态及地理位置及高程情况进行的充分经营,使得各自重要的水利功能和作用得以发挥,并形成特殊的地景形态。

图3 西湖地景与杭州格局(3-1引自《西湖游览志》西湖游览志图;3-2由陈薇摄) Fig. 3 West Lake landscape and Hangzhou

图4 瘦西湖与扬州水系(4-1引自《平山堂图志》名胜全图图一:蜀冈保障河全景;4-2由陈薇摄) Fig. 4 Slender West Lake and the Yangzhou water system 3 “留得”vs“拾得”之三:人文影响的角度

3.1 集景品题而佳境弥彰

“西湖巨丽唐初未闻也”[10],盛唐及宋以后西湖发展起来,很重要原因之一是人们对江山风月喜欢品题。尤其南渡以后,英俊丛集,府库充盈,禅林日多,道院繁盛,都城内外皇室、官员、僧人、文人等,出入或者居住于西湖附近,人工建设逐步增多,题名诗咏,更喜和植物相配,逐渐形成西湖景观。著名的有“西湖十景”:苏堤春晓、断桥残雪、曲院风荷、花港观鱼、柳浪闻莺、雷峰夕照、三潭印月、平湖秋月、双峰插云、南屏晚钟。从形成过程看,“西湖十景”大致分为3类。

皇家工程之用得:如苏堤春晓(图5)、断桥残雪、三潭印月、平湖秋月。最大特色就是将筑堤葑田的堤坝和疏浚堆土而成的岛屿,留得下来,加上造桥(苏堤上建有六桥,自南向北依次为:映波、锁澜、望山、压堤、东浦、跨虹[11];白堤和断桥完美结合)或传承蓬莱岛求神仙做法(三潭印月),形成较大尺度的景观、意境和格局。从唐宋筑长堤,到南宋庆元初“以西湖为放生池作亭”“有鸟兽鱼龟”[10],再到明代万历间小瀛洲岛浚湖堆土呈湖中有岛、岛中有湖的“田”字形,是西湖水平面不断完善分区的过程。

坊墅花园之转得:如曲院风荷、花港观鱼、柳浪闻莺。或是地酒坊飘香、荷香四溢;或别墅地处花港、凿池养鱼;或御花园内柳丝弄姿、莺歌燕舞,均是南宋时围绕西湖和日常生活活动相关的场所。由于西湖水体还有实用功能,如“滨湖多植莲藕菱芰芡之属,或蓄鱼鲜日供城市”,或“画阁东头纳晚凉,红莲不及白莲香”[10],因而西湖周边形成一些市坊、园墅、花园。后来有些建筑功能已转变或者泯灭,但由于品题优美而流传下来。

宗教建筑之借得:如雷峰夕照、双峰插云(图6)、南屏晚钟,最大特点为借得——借远景、借远声,陆游有诗:“举手邀素月,移舟来青萍,钟从南屏来,殷殷浮烟津”[12],便是借得的意境。远处吴越国时期(977年)建造的雷峰塔(1924年残毁后为遗迹,2004年建成覆盖于遗址的新塔)、更远处西湖西侧南北山峰的唐宋塔[5]、西湖南侧南屏山的寺庙钟声,加上西湖水烟氤氲,形成旷远的禅意,恍若云天。

“西湖十景”是古人集景品题的文化创意,也反映出古人对于西湖资源在“中景”——皇家工程、“近景”——坊墅花园、“远景”——宗教建筑,在不同尺度空间方面的认知和领悟。到《南巡盛典》时,景点增加,范围扩大,但是诸如西湖西侧南北山峰的唐宋塔已无存,视域感受缩小许多。

3.2 布景模式游画舫十里

扬州瘦西湖的位置与功能、水体和形状,明代基本形成,但形成画舫十里的美景画面,在历史长河则是瞬间,和2个重要的事件相关联,即康熙、乾隆六下江南,而瘦西湖全盛只在乾隆四五十年间(1775—1785年)。

“雾起来了”:扬州是隋代运河和元明清大运河的中点,枢纽之重要有着悠久的历史,又有唐代都会的基础,所以清代康熙、乾隆六下江南,每次都从运河乘龙舟到扬州驻跸,皇帝御驾光临,扬州便“忙得雾起来了” 。一是兴修水利,以便行舟,康乾盛世对于扬州段水系经常开浚或者深浚,如“乾隆八年,详筹河工案内议准”,挑浚河身深通、建闸,“于通江河道有益。得旨:允行。下部知之”[13]。二是造景,康熙年间 “修褉红桥,有红桥倡和集”“诸名士修褉红桥,有冶春诗”[9];到乾嘉年间,城外名胜26处,共39个风景点,《扬州画舫录》二跋中指出:“扬州全盛,在乾隆四、五十年间。翠华南幸,楼台画舫十里不断”[4] 。主要是为南巡时游线沿途需求所设:呈现布景式沿途景致,如“北郊诸园皆临水,各有水门,而园后另开大门,以通往来”[4]。《平山堂图志》的画法亦印证这特殊性(图7),就是沿河平视诸景致;或者为驻跸改造寺庙庭院,如“大营因天宁寺增建,行宫乃改是为”[4],加建御道,增设华表(牌坊),屹然形成行宫。

快速模仿:继康熙南巡之后,乾隆皇帝法祖省方,亦六度巡幸江南,其间,徽州盐商为了供邀宸赏,竭尽献媚邀宠之能事。皇室为酬答输诚,“时邀眷顾,或召对,或赐宴,赏赉渥厚,拟于大僚”[14]。经过几番眉来眼去,投桃报李,徽商遂牢牢控制了清代两淮盐务的运作。对于皇帝到来,当时盐务衙门附属有“匠作、结彩、凉篷、联额、作坊、坐船、浴堂、桥旗、扑戳、掉轿、厨夫、药匠、钟表、装潢匠等项”[15]。衣食住行各类伺候人等,一应俱全。为快速解决应时之作,模仿便是一条捷径,如瘦西湖的莲花桥和“白塔晴云”景点仿自北京白海五龙亭和白塔(图8)、“小金山”浓缩镇江金山之形胜等,为满足功能需求,沿途茶社、酒肆等商业建筑也多,出资者多为徽商,“虹桥”(即康熙年“红桥”)一带犹如宋代开封“虹桥”,热闹非凡,有画境也有香风 。

消融育得:瘦西湖的应时建设非常明显,其前后的变化在《扬州画舫录》袁枚序中表达十分清楚:“记四十年前,余游平山,从天宁门外,拕舟而行,长河如绳,阔不过二丈许,旁少亭台,不过堰渚细流,草树峁歙而已。自辛未岁天子南行,官吏因商民子来之意,赋工属役,增荣餙观,奢而张之,水则洋洋然回渊九折矣,山则峨峨然隥约横斜矣”[4];而皇帝走后又40年,楼台倾毁,花木凋零,而天宁寺“驾过后各门皆档木栅游人不敢入”[4]。虽然皇帝走后建筑等物质的东西会被弃用,但是由于经过大批建设历练的盐商,尤其他们自明代成化、弘治以后伴随着两淮盐政制度的重大改革已获得较高的地位和实力,最终孕育出独具特色的封建晚期扬州城市文化:譬如歙县人程梦星翰林事迹载于筱园中、歙县人汪玉枢事迹载于九峰园中[4],园林掺以徽州人文色彩;又如为驾迎建设的“买卖街前后寺观皆为大厨房以备六司百官食次第一”[4],皇帝走之后则形成扬州饮食文化昌盛。

两湖的“人-景”,差异很大:西湖造景士大夫多、僧人多,且经历长期过程和积淀,同时对大尺度的山水空间运筹帷幄。瘦西湖造景则主要是盐商,快速而有效,有沿湖布景之特点,诚如当地15岁才子云:“画船摇过绿杨湾,水净花明两岸间,多少楼台看不尽,更烦添写隔江山” [4],一个“隔”字,便表达出瘦西湖和西湖的迥异;而对寺庙或书院则加以改造以驻跸急用,“拾得”而为。但两湖的“人-景”,也有共同之处,如西湖的湖船和瘦西湖的画舫,能够主动组织人的视线,引导入画,沿用至今。

4 结语

上述从城市发展、水利开发、人文影响的角度,对杭州西湖和扬州瘦西湖在“城-景”“地-景”“人-景”的形成方面进行了剖析与对比,可以发现其思路、动因、操作手段也迥然而异,可以概括为:西湖是“留得”的杰作,瘦西湖是“拾得”的妙作。图5 苏堤春晓(引自《西湖志》卷三) Fig. 5 The spring dawn on Su causeway

图6 双峰插云(引自《西湖志》卷三) Fig. 6 Dual cloud piercing pinnacles

图7 瘦西湖沿湖列景(引自《平山堂图志》名胜全图部分) Fig. 7 Slender West Lake scenes

图8 莲性寺白塔与莲花桥(引自《平山堂图志》名胜全图部分) Fig. 8 White Pagoda at Lotus Temple and Lotus Bridge“留得”就是大局优先和高瞻远瞩、留有余地和注重控制,其中也包含想象和预见、节制和精明 [5]之审美与心思,在杭州甚至浙江其他景观中也存有这样的传统。如杭州郭庄私园,地处杭州西湖西山路卧龙桥北,滨里西湖之西岸,最有特色的是东边沿湖的布局和沿湖的建筑设置,有的设墙开洞,有的平台临水,有的山石为界,有的水洞通湖,以最简约的方式,远可借苏堤,近可瞰湖波,获得丰富景色。又如绍兴柯岩,古人在采石时不是尽快开采完工,而是独到精准地留下如云骨秀峰、摩崖石壁等,以便后人发挥,后来成就了著名的柯岩石景。

“拾得”就是审时度势和顺应变化、化腐朽为神奇,草率上阵或者衰败的遗址甚至是感悟,之后也能内化为一种资源和特色甚至文化,十分有趣和突出。如“二十四桥”原来是唐代官河上的桥,但到了瘦西湖建设期,原来的“分布阡陌别立桥梁,所谓二十四桥者,或存或废不可得而考”[9],但却成就了瘦西湖具遥想意味的一处著名景致;又如南巡沿途的酒肆、茶庄,后来转化为扬州人的典型生活和消费场所传承下来。

如果用今天的思维理解,从宋代形成的“西湖十景”能保留到后世甚至发展,是保护和节制的结果;而清代一举成名的瘦西湖则是不断利用各种条件的速成。但有一点是肯定的,就是水体与城市生活、水利功能、人为作用等关系,古人是整体思考和发展的,而不同于今天水利工程无视审美、景观水体和城市活水相互分离的状态。从这个意义上讲,古人的创造智慧和成就来自于整体大于局部之和的系统思想和节约自然的生态意识、高超的审美水平以及对于大尺度的城市空间进行运作的能力。至于如何将植物和疏浚的堤坝结合、可食用的水生动植物和观赏环境结合、利用画船或画舫在流动中推进人的感受等,2个西湖均有非凡而独特的做法,从而持续散发着如“钱塘帝都会,西湖地灵杰” “最是扬州胜,红桥带绿杨,著名同廿四,佳话自渔洋,去住笙歌接,空濛烟水长,几回凭吊处,诗思寄斜阳” [9]的自豪和意境。“留得”和“拾得”——2个西湖之中国古典智慧,其实也存在于中国许多历史城市-建筑-园林的创造中,发掘之,便可以传承和润泽后代,也可以启迪我们今天的实践。

注释:

①江苏扬州子城保护与发展规划,2002;全国重点文物保护单位扬州城址(隋—宋)保护规划,2007.10—2009.12,项目负责人:陈薇,甲方:扬州市文物局。

②浙江杭州国保单位南宋临安皇城保护和综合发展利用规划,2005;全国重点文物保护单位临安城遗址(南宋)总体保护规划,2011.3—2012.3,陈薇为负责人之一,甲方:杭州市园林文物局、杭州市规划局。

③《扬州画舫录》扬州画舫录题词第九页,见参考文献[4]。

④(明)田汝成.“西湖总叙”,(清)李卫,程元章,等.《西湖志》,雍正十二年:卷三十二,艺文二:七。

⑤明末清初文学家、史学家张岱的《西湖梦寻·钱王祠》写道:“时将筑宫殿,望气者言:‘因故府大之,不过百年:填西湖之半,可得千年。’武肃笑曰:‘焉有千年而其中不出真主者乎?奈何困吾民为!’遂弗改造。”后人为纪念钱王,在西湖边上建起了钱王祠,并撰文书碑,颂扬功德。与传说布衣书生此诗可以比对,即钱镠有逾千年的思考,乃为史实。

⑥(宋)周淙.乾道临安志,临安志卷第二,“历代沿革”条载,“宋兴,钱俶始事贡献,太平兴国三年,朝于京师,遂纳土焉。”见参考文献[5],第17页。

⑦(宋)朱南杰.“同刘明山游湖边作”,(清)李卫,程元章,等.《西湖志》,雍正十二年,卷三十六,艺文六:二十。

⑧指唐代扬州和益州(成都),时为两大商业中心。(唐)李吉甫,《元和郡县志》:“扬州与成都号为天下繁侈,故称扬、益”。

⑨“所可纪者有二十四桥”,(清)刘文淇.《扬州水道记》,淮南书局补刊,道光戊戌四月:卷二,江都运河:六。

⑩(清)刘文淇.《扬州水道记》,淮南书局补刊,道光戊戌四月:卷一,江都运河:四三(吴养源校字)。

11韦庄.《过扬州》:“当年人未识兵戈,处处青楼夜夜歌。花发洞中春日永,月明衣上好风多。淮王去后无鸡犬,炀帝归来葬绮罗。二十四桥空寂寂,绿杨摧折旧官河。”

12《平山堂图志》卷一第十七页,见参考文献[9]。

13详见早稻田大学图书馆藏民国本《扬州丛刻》第五本《扬州鼓吹词序》第七页“小金山”条。

14(清)刘文淇.《扬州水道记》,淮南书局补刊,道光戊戌四月:卷二,江都运河:四。

15《扬州画舫录》卷一第二十六页,见参考文献[4]。

16《嘉庆重修一统志》三二,卷九十六,《大清一统志》扬州府一,形势:五(前提调官臣张日章恭纂辑,提调官臣贾克慎恭覆辑,校对官臣贺式韩恭校恭覆校)。

17雷塘汉时称雷陂。《嘉庆新志》曰:“雷塘在城西北十五里;上塘长广共六里余;下塘长广共七里余,小新塘接连。上雷塘东西阔一百丈,其水注上雷塘,转入下雷塘,由槐子河东流入官河,长广共二里余。”转引自:(清)刘文淇.徐炳顺标点注释.《扬州水道记》,香港:天马图书有限公司,2004:35-36.

18详见《扬州营志》第一册卷二“舆图”中“西南汛图”“便北汛图”和第二册卷三“建置”,见参考文献[8]。 19详见《扬州营志》第三册卷五“形势附”,见参考文献[8]。

20《平山堂图志》卷一第十八页,见参考文献[9]。

21《平山堂图志》卷六第二十三页,见参考文献[9]。

22“河自尹会一重浚后,乾隆十五年、二十年、二十六年,巡盐御史吉庆普福高恒叠经挑浚加深广,曲折点缀园亭,栽植桃柳,游者如在山阴道中,步步引人入胜。”《平山堂图志》卷一第十八页,见参考文献[9]。

23(南宋)陆游诗《夜泛西湖示桑甥世昌》,见参考文献[11]。

24“北高峰,灵隐寺后山是也。塔记云:唐天宝中,邑人于北高峰建砖塔七层,会昌中塔费毁,大中复兴。”“南高峰在南山石坞烟霞山后……上有砖塔,高可十丈,相传云天福中建,崇宁二年,仁王寺僧修懿重修。”(宋)施谔,淳祐临安志,临安志卷第十,“山川”条载,见参考文献[5],148-149页。

25出自《红楼梦》“忙得雾起来了”,《红楼梦》中有不少现在的扬州方言,或许是当时的扬州和南京方言。“雾”字似乎很能烘托繁忙的氛围。

26《平山堂图志》卷十第十三页,见参考文献[9]。

27《扬州画舫录》二跋第一页,见参考文献[4]。

28《扬州画舫录》卷六第五页,见参考文献[4]。

29《扬州画舫录》卷一第十六页,见参考文献[4]。

30“虹桥:绿波春水饮长虹,锦缆徐牵碧镜中,真在横披图里过,平山迎面送香风。”《南巡盛典》卷七,天章,第六页。光绪壬午年秋七月上海点石斋缩印,申报馆申昌书画室发兑。

31《扬州画舫录》扬州画舫录序,第一页,见参考文献[4]。

32《扬州画舫录》卷四第二十一页,见参考文献[4]。

33《扬州画舫录》卷四第九页,见参考文献[4]。

34《扬州画舫录》卷四第二十五页,见参考文献[4]。

35《扬州画舫录》扬州画舫录题词第十三页,见参考文献[4]。

36“《国史地理志》总叙两浙路,以为人性敏柔而慧,尚浮屠氏之教,厚于滋味,急于进取,善于图利。”(宋)周淙,乾道临安志,临安志卷第二,“风俗”条载,见参考文献[5],第18页。

37《平山堂图志》卷十第十四、十五页,见参考文献[9]。

38(明)王世贞.“初至杭左史郭公右史莫公邀宴西湖大风雨归作”,(清)李卫,程元章,等.《西湖志》,雍正十二年,卷三十三,艺文三:十八。

39(清)宋荦.“红桥”,《平山堂图志》卷五第六页,见参考文献[9]。

参考文献:

[1]陈薇.为什么要研究长江中下游沿江景观[J].建筑学报,1996(2):42-44.[2]陈薇.走在运河线上·大运河沿线历史城市与建筑研究[M].北京:中国建筑工业出版社, 2013.

[3]陈薇.城河湖水一带 绿杨城郭一体:扬州瘦西湖研究二则[J].中国园林,2009,25(11):12-16.

[4](清)李斗.扬州画舫录[M].自然盒藏版,乾隆乙卯年镌(1795年).

[5](宋)周淙,施谔.南宋临安两志[M].杭州:浙江人民出版社,1983.

[6]《天一阁藏明代方志选刊.嘉靖惟扬志》卷之十,军政志,第十一页,一九六三年九月上海古籍书店据宁波天一阁藏明嘉靖残本景印[M].上海:上海古籍书店影印,1981年11月重印.

[7](明)田汝成.西湖游览志·二十四卷志·余二十六卷[M].西湖游览志卷一“西湖游览志叙”,光绪廿二年丙申四月钱塘丁氏嘉惠堂重刊(1896年).

[8](清)陈述祖.扬州营志[M].江苏扬州古旧书店刊印,道光十一年七月(1831年).

[9](清)赵之壁.平山堂图志[M].三吾机裔欧阳利见重刊,光绪九年九月(1883年).

[10](明)田汝成.西湖游览志·二十四卷志·余二十六卷[M].西湖游览志余卷二十四,光绪廿二年丙申四月钱塘丁氏嘉惠堂重刊(1896年).

[11](明)田汝成.西湖游览志·二十四卷志·余二十六卷[M].西湖游览志卷二,光绪廿二年丙申四月钱塘丁氏嘉惠堂重刊(1896年).

[12](清)朱彭,等.南宋古迹考·外四种[M].杭州:浙江人民出版社,1983:4.

[13]朱祖延,郭康松.清实录类纂·科学技术卷[M].武汉:武汉出版社,2005:277-278.

[14](清)赵尔巽.清史稿第13册[M].北京:中华书局,1976:3613.

[15](清)陶澍.陶文毅公全集.卷十二,“恭缴盐政养廉银并裁盐政衙门浮费折子”[M]//顾廷龙.《续修四库全书》编纂委员会.续修四库全书1502集部别集类.上海:上海古籍出版社,2002:652. (编辑/金花)

作者简介:

陈 薇

1961年生/女/江苏南京人/东南大学教授,博士生导师/研究方向为建筑历史与理论(南京 210096)

"Retention" and "Pick-up" —Ancient Chinese Wisdoms Embedded in the Two West Lakes

The West Lake in Hangzhou and the Slender West Lake in Yangzhou are two beautiful classical Chinese gardens in the Jiangnan area (the southern Yangtze River delta area). Though both named for their physical presence in the western part of the cities, the two lakes tell somewhat different stories about their formations and landscaping. In the past, comparisons have been made mainly from the perspective of aesthetics, which compromised people's perception of the two West Lakes, diluted or ignored the truth and evolution physically embedded in the West Lake and Slender West Lake that have survived the times. This paper attempts to discuss and analyze the ideas, motivations, and practices behind the accomplishments achieved by the two Jiangnan classical gardens from the perspectives of urbanism, land and people. Hopefully, it will be an enlightenment to the inheritance of the values embodied by Chinese classical wisdoms in the contemporary practices.

1 "Retention" vs "Pick-up" I: From the Perspective of Urban Development

1.1 Old town was expanded without compromising the green water of West Lake

Today's West Lake is undoubtedly a most important component part of Hangzhou. During the period from the Sui Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, the West Lake was physically confined to the western part of the city (Fig. 1). Despite the fact that after the early republican period, the city walls in the locality were dismantled or removed, making the West Lakethe largest platform for consumption, the West Lake, historically, has always been a powerhouse and a source of creation to the city.

The West Lake that evolved from the seawalls built for the development of agriculture during the Qin and Han Dynasties became an inner lake. It was luckily retained by the authorities during the Tang Dynasty and subsequent Five Dynasties, and survived the urban development that wisely built "the palace in the south and downtowns in the north" without compromising the integrity of the West Lake. The Lake eventually lived up to the expectation patronizing both water conservancy projects and landscaping, making itself a beautiful landscape.

1.2 Twenty-four empty and lonely bridges with bent green willows at the abandoned moat

Yangzhou ranked the No. 1 metropolitan city as well as a major canal city during the Tang Dynasty. The city became increasingly matured from the Spring and Autumn Period to the Sui and Tang Dynasties, though it deplored an increasingly shrunken size after the Tang Dynasty (Fig. 2). Consequentially, the water system witnessed the changes. New waterways emerged at the expense of the old and abandoned one. Fortunately, the Slender West Lake in Yangzhou geared up the city's development by masterfully "picking up" the old waterways.

Bridging the official waterway was the first practice to turn the canal (Han Gou) dug during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period into an official shipping waterway by enclosing the Outer City section during the Tang Dynasty. The waterway was built with 24 bridges for easy access. The second endeavor was making good use of the moat, where the western part of the city made the official waterway a moat defending the city. The third undertaking was the connection of moat sections. Yangzhou became increasingly shrunken during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. However, the abandoned northern moat section built during the Tang Dynasty was connected with the deserted section of the official waterway (a moat section built during the Song Dynasty), making them a narrow winding waterway running from east to west in the west of the city, or the Slender West Lake.

The two lakes made their respective contributions to the formation and development of the cities as well as to the landscaping. They constituted a process that ancient folks relied on to mastermind a laudable urban development, or to realize a development that would take its natural course. It is also a process to protect the currently available waterways that the city depended on while taking advantage of the utilities derived from the abandoned waterways.

2 "Retention" vs "Pick-up" II: From the Perspective of Water Resources Development

2.1 "Water Sink" and Long Embankment

The West Lake in Hangzhou makes a "water sink", where an array of important water conservancy projects was staged to prevent the leakage of water from the lake, gather live water from other sources and build the embankments. There are four key figures worth mentioning as they constituted a crucial part of the lake development. The King of State Wuyue dispatched thousands of soldiers to clean the weeds and dredge the water, making the water affluent in supply and fine in quality. During the Tang Dynasty, an inspector official named Li Bi ordered to divert the lake water to feed six wells in the city. Bai Juyi, also an inspector official during the Tang Dynasty, built a 10-mile long earthen embankment to retain and discharge water, and the embankment was dubbed as a "white embankment" for the white sand pavement, or a "broken bridge embankment" for the presence of a broken bridge. Physically resting on the northern part of the West Lake, the long embankment became a beautiful landscape running from east to west that won folks' love, such as "I love the Lake for its unforgettable scenes in the east, and I walked through the white sand embankment amid the shades of green willows" (Bai Juyi). Su Shi, a renowned figure in the Song Dynasty, not only dredged the West Lake, repaired the weir gate and cleaned the six wells in the city, but also built in the middle of the lake a Su Causeway, a long embankment running from south to north. Meanwhile, six bridges were erected with the presence of pavilions on them. The scenes suggest a skillful combination of water projects and landscaping. The two long embankments erected during the Tang and Song Dynasties constituted a most distinctive feature on the West Lake that also served as a major mark for lake zoning. They created a special landscape line along with Mount. Gushan (Fig. 3). More importantly, it was an extremely wise practice to spare room for landscaping by taking advantage of the projects launched to control the water elevation of the West Lake, the largest water body in Hangzhou.

2.2 Discharge and "Long Ditch"

Yangzhou sits on the Shugang Highlands. During the Tang Dynasty, people in the north paid more attention to building the weirs and dredging the ponds, while people in the south the water systems. The water systems in the west were mainly kept for retaining or discharging water. The West Lake area formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties was literally a twisting and winding long ditch resting between Shugang, the canal and the Yangtze River for discharging.

Thanks to its unique position, the Slender West Lake was able to feed water to the canal in dry years, or discharge flood water to the Yangtze River during wet ones. It was only when Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong started their southern tours that people embarked on landscaping, particular during the years of Emperor Qianlong, where the water projects would go hand in hand with landscaping for the garden/ pavilion scenes dotted with peach trees and willows that eventually resulted in a long winding waterway that depicted the picturesque presence of water with beautiful scenes (Fig. 4).

The two lakes' "land" and "landscaping" were ancient folks' thoughtful results achieved based on the scale of lake, the form of water body and geographical location/elevation, which enabled each to play the important water function or role while contributing to the formation of the special landscape.

3 "Retention" vs "Pick-up" III: From the Perspective of Human Impact

3.1 Scene, Naming & Taste

The West Lake saw its heyday during the prosperous Tang and later Song Dynasties. One of the major impetuses behind the booming development of the West Lake was landscaping becoming a catch topic. The trend became increasingly popular after the Nandu Event that brought more talented people to the city where the increased lakeside construction activities attracted the themed poems and inscriptions in the company of plants. They made themselves landscape scenes at lakesides imply because of a given architectural utility, including.

The one derived from the royal projects, including The Spring Dawn on Su Causeway (Fig. 5), Broken Bridge & Leftover Snow, Moon Reflections Amid Three Water Pagoda and Peaceful Lake Scene under Autumn Moon. They are mostly the large-scale landscape scenes created with a defined aura or layout either on the embankments or on the islets built with the mud stemmed from the dredging work.

The one transformed from the old villas or gardens, including Lotus Pond Scene Watching from Old WineMaking Yard, Fish Viewing at A Floral Port, and Birds Watching Amid Waving Willows. They used to be the functional buildingsat lakeside, including marketplaces, villas and gardens. Though they are no longer what they were in terms of functionalities, the famed buildings survived the time because of the cherished beautiful themes.

The one because of religious connotations, including Leifeng Pagoda Sunset Scene, Dual Cloud Piercing Pinnacles (Fig. 6) and Evening Bell Rings the Nanping Hill. They were mostly built borrowing a distant scene or a distant sound over a foggy water scene on the lake to create an aura that was far, distant and cosmic.

The Top Ten West Lake Scenes are the themed creative works of ancient folks. They mirrored, from different spatial perspectives, ancient folks 'knowledge and perception of the scenes staged across the West Lake, including the "middle view" created by the royal projects, the "close view" such as villas and gardens, and the "distant view" perceived by the religious buildings.

3.2 Stage-setting mode for painted boats

The Slender West Lake in Yangzhou had been basically established during the Ming Dynasty in terms of its location, functionalities and water body/shape. However, the imposing 10-mile scene of painted boats was literally a blink of eye during the long course of history. It was associated with two important events, namely the six southern tours made by Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong, respectively. The Slender West Lake marked its heyday between the 40th and 50thyears of Emperor Qianlong, where the 10-mile painted boats scene flourished.

Stage set. The scenes were presented in a stage set manner along the routes of the Emperors' southern tours. The special arrangements, as such, were confirmed in The Pingshan Temple Atlas (Fig. 7). They could be a walking palace transformed from a temple complex. For example, the Tianning Temple Complex was added with a royal path and archway to be a proper palace formation.

Quick imitation. To quickly address the contingency needs for landscaping, imitation made a short cut. For example, they built a Lotus Bridge and a White Tower on the Slender West Lake that mimicked the Wulong Pavilion and the White Pagoda scenes at Beijing's Northern Sea Garden (Fig. 8). Another example is the Petite Golden Hill, a concentrated version of the Golden Hill in Zhenjiang. Meanwhile, an array of commercial buildings mostly financed by Huizhou merchants, including tea house and pub, were built to meet the functional needs along the visiting route.

Ups-downs and implications. The Slender West Lake was apparently developed to meet the time. Although the buildings or the material presence would be vanished after the emperors' visit, the massive construction activities trained and enriched the salt merchants in terms of wealth and business wisdom. Consequentially, salt merchants raised their status and enhanced their strength, which ultimately resulted in a unique Yangzhou urban culture in the late feudalist society.

The two lakes are much differed from the perspectives of the men involved and the scenes created. Literati and monks made the main force behind West Lake landscaping thanks to their sustained enhancements and the increasingly matured understanding of spatial operations. The Slender West Lake landscaping, on the one hand, was mainly the quick and effective operations handled by salt merchants featured with staging the scenes along the lakeside. However, the two lakes did share something in common in terms of men and scenes. For example, the West Lake had the lake boats and the Slender West Lake the painted boats. The boats that would automatically enter people's sight and guide them to the picturesque scenes turned out a popular practice that survived the time till today.

4 Concluding Remarks

West Lake is a masterpiece of "retention", while the Slender West Lake makes a wonder of "pick-up".

"Retention" implies a vision of thinking something as a whole, forward-looking, leaving room for leeway and focusing on control. It suggests an aesthetic way of thinking for imagination, foresight, moderation and smartness.

"Pick-up" is meant to judge the situation for adaptation. It could turn the abandoned into a miracle. A very interesting phenomenon is sometimes a coarsely designed or abandoned ruins or even an inspiration can be a nice physical experience that would eventually become a resource, a feature and even a culture.

In today's way of thinking, the retention and even the later development of the Top Ten West Lake Scenes created during the Song Dynasty is the result of conservation and moderation. Meanwhile, the Slender West Lake that became famous during the Qing Dynasty is a quick result taking advantage of diverse means. However, one thing is certain: our ancient ancestors thought of and developed the relationship between water and urban life, water functionalities and human's role as a whole. It differs from today's practice of water projects that split the ties between aesthetics, water landscaping and urban living water. In this context, ancient folks' creative wisdom and accomplishments stemmed from their systematic thinking that the overall is larger than the sum of locals, and from their natural eco-consciousness of frugality, superb aesthetic taste, and ability to operate in a scale urban space.

"Retention" and "pick-up" embody the classical Chinese wisdoms embedded in the two West Lakes, though they can also be found in the landscape creations in many other Chinese historical cities. Tapping up the wisdoms as such not only facilitates the inheritance and the nourishment of future generations, but also enlightens what and how we should do today. (Editor / Jin Hua)

Biography:

Chen Wei, Born in 1961 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, Professor of Southeast University, research area: architectural history and theory (Nanjing 210096)

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