刊首语

2017-06-30 04:33:18

中国不断加剧的环境污染问题已不容忽视,迫使我们必须重新审视人与环境、人与自然的关系。早在20世纪,提出“土地伦理”的美国著名环境保护主义者利奥波德就是在进行野外调查时,看到多条被毁坏的河道生境,感到痛心疾首,继而引发了其对重新认识人与土地关系的思考。

2011年风景园林学有幸成为中国的一级学科,在申报过程中,需要确定二级学科方向。我和北京林业大学的李雄教授、华中农业大学的高翅教授一致坚持把生态修复确立为二级学科之一,我们认为这会是风景园林学里非常重要的一个方向。在以往几千年的人类历史中,风景园林其实是跟“美”打交道的。然而工业革命以后,城市问题日益严峻,棕地越来越多,下一阶段风景园林学至关重要的任务之一正是生态修复。可能风景园林学是唯一一个把生态修复作为二级学科方向的学科,而棕地再生则是生态修复的重中之重。

那么棕地再生与生态修复要怎么做呢?其实是合作。第一是多学科合作,第二是政府、学校与企业间的合作,第三是政府各部门之间的合作,第四是国际合作。而合作的基础就是有共同交流的平台。2016年9月,清华大学建筑学院与美国哈佛大学设计学院技术与环境中心、环境保护部对外合作中心共同组织了“2016棕地再生与生态修复国际会议”,就是旨在搭建共同合作的平台,提供多部门、跨学科、国际化的交流契机。本期的主题文章即是选取了部分有代表性的会议论文与发言,从多种维度论述棕地再生及生态修复的相关议题。

柯克伍德大胆地提出“中国棕”的概念,强调要以更加广阔的视角来看待棕地的改造更新问题,这也是其正在进行的“全球棕”研究的重要组成部分。郑晓笛通过对期刊文章及专业奖项获奖棕地项目的统计分析,呈现出风景园林专业内对棕地问题快速攀升的关注度,同时提醒广大从业人员要警惕2个误区,特别是不能简单地把风景园林作为治愈棕地问题的“绿色膏药”,而要科学、全面地应对棕地再生。加德纳作为美国环境保护署负责棕地问题的政府官员,强调了棕地再生过程中多方精诚合作的重要性。另外2篇主题文章则针对采石干扰场地与矿业废弃地这2种棕地类型,分别论述了其生态修复与改造利用过程中的问题与潜力。

中国的棕地问题需要借鉴发达国家的成功经验,但也绝不能简单照搬。中国工业生产的流程与技术,场地污染的构成、分布与扩散情况、修复技术、政策标准、项目的资金来源与管理运作方式等,均具有中国的特殊性。中国棕地的数量到底有多少?目前仅有一些参考数据,还没有全面的统计信息。这说明了2个问题,第一、棕地的研究空间非常巨大;第二、研究棕地的意义是不可限量的。从这点来讲,棕地再生与生态修复,在风景园林学,在我们国家,有着越来越重要的地位。

最后,我想特别强调,棕地再生的不仅仅是棕地本身,生态修复所修复的也不应仅仅是生态,更重要的是人类的心灵与精神。只有心灵和精神得以修复,棕地的再生才能真正成功!

China's growing environmental pollution problem cannot be ignored, forcing us to re-examine the relationship between people and environment, man and nature. As early as the 20th century, Aldo Leopold, the famous environmentalist of the United States of America who put forward the "land ethic", saw a number of damaged river habitat in the field investigation and felt bitter, which triggered his reflections on the re-understanding of the relationships between people and land.

In 2011 landscape architecture had the honor to become a first-level discipline of China, and in the declaration process, the second-level discipline directions should be determined. Professor Li Xiong of Beijing Forestry University, Profess Gao Chi of Huazhong Agricultural University, and I insisted on ecological restoration as one of the second-level disciplines, and we thought this would be a very important direction of landscape architecture study. In the past thousands of years of human history, landscape architecture was in fact about "beauty". However, after the industrial revolution, urban problems are increasingly grim, brownfields become more and more, and in the next stage of landscape architecture study one of the most important tasks is ecological restoration. Perhaps landscape architecture is the gardenology is the only one to ecological restoration as a discipline of the discipline of the only discipline with two ecological restoration as its second-level discipline, and brownfield regeneration is the most important part of ecological restoration.

How to achieve brownfield regeneration and ecological restoration? Cooperation, actually. The first is multidisciplinary cooperation, the second is the government, university, and enterprise cooperation, the third is the cooperation between various government departments, and the fourth is international cooperation. The basis of cooperation is a common platform for communication and exchange. In September 2016, Tsinghua University School of Architecture, the Technology and Environment Center of Harvard University School of Design, and the Foreign Cooperation Office of the Ministry of Environmental Protection jointly organized the "2016 International Symposium of Brownfield Regeneration and Ecological Restoration", designed to build a common platform for cooperation, and provide multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary, and international exchange opportunities. The theme articles of this month are the selected papers and speeches of the symposium, discussing the brownfield regeneration and ecological restoration related issues from a variety of dimensions.

Niall Kirkwood boldly put forward the concept of "ChinaBrown", emphasizing the need for a broader perspective to look at the renovation of brownfield, which is also an important part of his ongoing "global brown" research. Through the statistical analysis of the journal articles and professional awards award-winning brownfield projects, Zheng Xiaodi revealed the rapid rise in the degree of concern about brownfields in landscape architecture study, and reminded the practitioners to be alert to two errors, in particular, not simply puttinglandscape architecture scenery as "green plaster" to cure brownfield problems, but to make brownfield regeneration more scientifically and comprehensively instead. Gardner, as the government official for the brownfield issue of the USA Environmental Protection Agency, stressed the importance of multi-partycooperation in the process of brownfield regeneration. The other two articles aimed at the problems and potentials in the process of ecological restoration and transformation, respectively, for the two kinds of brownfields, quarrying site and mining waste land.

The successful experience of developed countries is needed for China's brownfield problem, but it must not be simply copied. China's industrial production process and technology, site pollution composition, distribution and diffusion, repair technology, policy standards, the funding sources, management practices, etc., are China's particularity. What is the number of Chinese brownfield? There are only some reference data, but no comprehensive statistical information. This shows two issues: the first, there is much room for the research of brownfield; second, the meaning of brownfield study is limitless. From this point of view, brownfield regeneration and ecological restoration holds and increasingly important position in the landscape architecture discipline and in China.

Finally, I would like to emphasize that brownfield reproduction is not just about the brownfield itself, ecological restoration should not be just about ecology, and the more importantis the human mind and spirit. Only the mind and spirit are renovated,can the brownfield regeneration be really successful!

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